English version
N.º 31
2019
pp. 17-30

 

< Anterior Seguinte >

Artigo
Reconsiderando as origens do tapete de dragão

Gerald Pollio

Fordham University, London Study Centre, 2 Eyre St Hill, London EC1R 5ET, United Kingdom

gpollio@aol.com

Resumo

O povo arménio tem vindo cada vez mais a ser eliminado da história da tecelagem caucasiana. Dado que os arménios viveram na região durante milénios e são os únicos habitantes reconhecidos como tecelões e tintureiros em fontes da Antiguidade e da Idade Média, é certamente curioso que tenham abandonado uma actividade pela qual foram tão famosos. Inicialmente, muitos tapetes da região foram atribuídos a tecelões arménios, mas, desde o segundo quartel do século XX, foram reclassificados como sendo de origem turca (azeri) ou persa. Este artigo reconsidera a evidência disponível, e o modo como esta tem sido interpretada, para chegar a uma avaliação ponderada sobre a contribuição do povo arménio para a produção de tapetes de dragão, o mais antigo padrão conhecido da região. Os resultados desafiam muitas das suposições sobre as quais têm sido baseadas aquelas conclusões e, deste modo, recupera a possibilidade de as atribuições feitas pelos primeiros autores serem mais rigorosas do que as feitas pelos seus sucessores.

Palavras-chave

Origens de padrões
Tapetes de dragão
Cáucaso
Arménia
Historiografia

Idioma

Inglês

Título original

Reconsidering dragon carpet origins

DOI

10.14568/cp2018012

Download

PDF

Importar referência

RIS | Endnote

Citação

Conservar Património | APA | Chicago | NP405 | ABNT

Conservar Património:
Pollio, G., 'Reconsidering dragon carpet origins', Conservar Património 31 (2019) 17-30, https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2018012.

APA:
Pollio, G. (2019). Reconsidering dragon carpet origins. Conservar Património, 31 17-30. DOI:10.14568/cp2018012.

Chicago:
Pollio, Gerald. 2019. "Reconsidering dragon carpet origins." Conservar Património 31:17-30. doi:10.14568/cp2018012.

NP405:
POLLIO, Gerald – Reconsidering dragon carpet origins. Conservar Património. [Em linha]. 31 (2019) 17-30 [Consult. ]. Disponível em WWW: <URL:https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2018012>. ISSN 21829942.

ABNT:
POLLIO, Gerald. Reconsidering dragon carpet origins. Conservar Património, Lisboa, v. 31, p. 17-30, 2019. Disponível em: <https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2018012>. Acesso em: .

História

Recebido: 2018-3-22
Revisto: 2018-10-15
Aceite: 2018-10-19
Online: 2018-12-3
Publicação: 2019-4-30

Referências

1 Kerimov, L., Azerbaijan Carpets, Baky Jazychy, Baku (1985).

2 Bier C., 'Carpets for commerce: rug weaving in the Caucasus', in Textiles in Trade: Proceedings of the Textile Society of America Biennial Symposium, Textile Society of America, Washington (1990) 166-173.

3 Pope A. U., 'The myth of the Armenian dragon carpets', Jahrbuch der Asiasiatischen Kunst 11 (1925) 147-158.

4 Neressian,V., 'The Marcy-Indjoudian Cope', Ars Orientalis 40 (2011) 204-241.

5 McGinnis, J., 'A Neo-Assyrian text describing a royal funeral', State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 1(1) (1987) 1-13.

6 Hubel, R., The Book of Carpets, Washington International Associates, Washington (1971).

7 Schurman U., The Pazyryk, Its Use and Origin, Armenian Rug Society, New York (1982).

8 Franses, M.; R. Pinner, R., 'The Caucasian collection', Hali 3 (1980) 96-115.

9 Spooner, B., 'Weavers and dealers: the authenticity of the oriental carpet', in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. A. Appadurai, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1986) 195-235, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511819582.009.

10 Malcolm, J.; Browne E. G., 'Account of a rare manuscript: History of Ifahán, presented to the Royal Asiatic Society on May 19, 1827', The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 33(4) (1901) 411-446.

11 Gans-Ruedin, E., Iranian Carpets: Art, Craft and History, Thames and Hudson, London (1978).

12 Bode, W von; Kühnel, E. Antique Rugs from the Near East, Bell and Hyman, London (1984).

13 Kendrick, A., Guide to the Collection of Carpets, Victoria and Albert Museum, London (1915).

14 Kendrick, A.; Tattersall, C., Fine Carpets in the Victoria and Albert Museum, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (1924).

15 Valentiner, W., Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Early Oriental Rugs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1910).

16 Breck, J.; Morris, F., The James F. Ballard Collection of Oriental Rugs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1923).

17 Kendrick, A. F., 'An exhibition of Near Eastern carpets', The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 55 (1929), 15-16.

18 Sakisian, A. 'Les tapis a dragons et leur origine arménienne', Syria 9(3) (1928), 236-258.

19 Willborg, P., 'The dragon rugs of Anatolia - a discussion of the type, its origin and age', Medelhavsmuseet: Bulletin, 18 (1983) 78-85.

20 Franses, M., 'Safavid-style domestic embroideries from historical Azerbaijan, 1550-1800', in Stars of the Caucasus: Silk Embroideries from Azerbaijan, ed. M. Franses, M. Carey & S. Krody, Hali Publications Limited, London (2018) 49-105.

21 Eiland, M. L., Jr.: Eiland, M. L., III, Oriental Carpets: A Complete Guide, Bullfinch Press, Boston (2001).

22 Der Manuelian, L.; Eiland , M., Weavers, Merchants and Kings: The Inscribed Rugs of Armenia, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth (1984).

23 Wright, R.; Wertime, R., Caucasian Carpets and Covers, Hali Publications Ltd., London (1995).

24 Mankowski, T., 'Some documents from Polish sources relating to carpet making in the time of Shah Abbas I' in A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present, eds. A. U. Pope & P. Ackerman, vol. 3, Oxford University Press, New York (1938) 2431-2436.

25 Azadi, S.; Kerimov, L.; Zollinger, W., Azerbaijani-Caucasian Rugs: The Ulmke Collection, Paul Hartung, Hamburg (2001).

26 Gerber, J., Description of Countries and Peoples along the Western Shore of the Caspian Sea, Oriental Literature, Moscow (1963).

27 Preiser-Kappler, J., 'The significance of Tabriz in the spatial frameworks of Italian merchants and ecclesiastics in the 13th and 14th centuries', in Politics, Patronage and the Transmission of Knowledge in 13th-15th, Century Tabriz, ed. J. Pfeiffer, Brill, Leiden (2014) 251-300.

28 Barbaro, G., Travels to Tana and Persia, Hakluyt Society, London (1873).

29 Sergeant, R., 'Material for a history of Islamic textiles up to the Mongol conquest', Ars Islamic 10 (1943) 71-104.

30 Het'um, The Flower of Histories of the East, Sources of the Armenian Tradition, Long Branch (2004).

31 Tavernier, J-B, The Six Voyages of Jean Batiste Tavernier through Turkey and into Persia and the East Indies, London (1678).

32 J. Bell, Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia to Diverse parts of Asia, vol. 1, Glasgow (1763).

33 Cartwright, J., 'Observations of Master John Cartwright in his voyage from Aleppo to Hispahan, and backe again', in Hakluytus Posthumous or Purchas His Pilgrimes, ed. S. Purchas, vol. 8, University of Glasgow Press, Glasgow (1906).

34 Herzig, E., 'The Armenian merchants of New Julfa, Isfahan', PhD dissertation, St. Anthony's College, Oxford University (1991).

35 Erdmann, K., Seven Hundred Years of Oriental Carpets, University of California Press, Berkeley (1970).

36 Dimand, M.; Mailey, J., Oriental Rugs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1973).

37 Pope, A. U., A History of Persian Art Since the Seventh Century A.D., Peter Davies, London (1930).

38 Ellis, C. G., Early Caucasian Rugs, Textile Museum, Washington (1975).

39 Kurdian, H., 'Corrections to 'Myth of Armenian Dragon Carpets'', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1 (1940) 65-67, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0035869X00079375.

40 Kouymjian, D., 'The Berlin Dragon-Phoenix Carpet and its probable Armenian origin', in Armenian Rugs and Textiles. An Overview of Examples from Four Centuries. Exhibition Catalogue, Armenian Rugs Society, Vienna (2014) 16-31.

41 Pope, A. U., 'Les tapis à Dragons. Résponse de M. U. Pope à l'étude de M. Sakisian', Syria 10(2) (1929) 181-182.

42 Sims, E., 'Carpets viii: The Il-Khanid and Timurid Periods' (1990), Encyclopaedia Iranica, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/carpets-viii (accessed 2018-12-02).

43 Monteith, W., Notes on Georgia and the New Russian Conquest beyond the Caucasus, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection, London (1829).

44 Lynch, H. Armenia: Travels and Studies, vol. 1, Longmans, Green and Company, London (1901).

45 G. Bournoutian, The 1820 Russian Survey of the Khanate of Shirvan, Gibb Memorial Trust, Cambridge (2016).

46 Bell, H., 'Carpets: Introduction', in Special Loan Exhibition of Carpets and Other Textiles form Asia Minor, Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia (1919).

47 Tanavoli, P., Persian Flatweaves, Antique Collectors Club, London (2002).

48 Azadi, S. 'Carpets xiv: Tribal Carpets' (1990), in Encyclopaedia Iranica, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/carpets-xiv (accessed 2018-12-02).

49 Denny, W., The Classical Tradition in Anatolian Carpets, The Textile Museum, Washington (2002).

50 W. Brice, 'The Turkish colonization of Anatolia', Bulletin of John Ryland's Library 38 (1955) 18-44, https://doi.org/10.7227/BJRL.38.1.2.

51 Spooner, B., 'The Iranian deserts', in Population Growth: Anthropological Implications, ed. B. Spooner, The MIT Press, Cambridge (1972) 245-268.

52 Jacoby, D., 'Silk economics and cross-cultural artistic interaction: Byzantium, the Muslim World, and the Christian West', Dumbarton Oaks Papers 58 (2004) 197-240), https://doi.org/10.2307/3591386.

53 Sharkey, H., A History of Muslims, Christians and Jews in the Middle East, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2017), https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139028455.

54 Arkun, A., 'Into the modern age, 1800-1913' in The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity, ed. E. Herzig & M. Kurkchiyan, Routledge Curzon, New York (2005) 40-65.

55 The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, London (1903).

56 Grasset-Saint Sauver, J. 'Habitan de l'Armenie', in Encyclopédie des Voyages, Paris (1796).

57 Hammer, E.; Arbuckle, B., '10,000 years of pastoralism in Anatolia: a review of evidence for variability in pastoral lifeways', Nomadic Peoples 20(2) (2017) 214-267, https://doi.org/10.3197/np.2017.21 204.

58 Wallerstein, I., The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century, vol. 1, Academic Press, New York (1974).

59 Brüggeman, W., 'The Islamic oriental carpets in Giotto's fresco Christmas Mass at Greccio in Assisi', in Facts and Artefacts in the Islamic World: Festschrift for Jens Kröger on His 65th Birthday, eds. A. Hagedorn & A. Shalem, Brill, Leiden (2007) 373-393.

60 Siegelbaum, L. H., 'Exhibiting kustar industry in late imperial Russia / exhibiting late imperial Russia in kustar industry', in Transforming Peasants: Society, State and Peasantry, 1861-1930, ed. J. Pallot, Macmillan and Company, London (1998) 37-63, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-26526-8_3.

Endereço persistente: https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2018012


< Anterior Seguinte >
ARP | Associação Profissional de Conservadores-Restauradores de Portugal