Versão em português
N.º 8
2008
pp. 59-66

 

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Article
Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region

Myriam Bouichou1,*, Emmanuel Cailleux2, Elisabeth Marie-Victoire3, Denis Sommain4

1 Materials engineer, Cercle des Partenaires du Patrimoine, France

2 Doctor, Centre Scientifique et Technique de la Construction, Belgique

3 Materials engineer, Laboratoire de recherche des Monuments Historiques, France

4 Geologist, Centre Technique Louis Vicat, France

* myriam.bouichou@culture.gouv.fr

Abstract

In France, natural cements were extensively produced in the middle of the 19th century. In the French Alps, due to their ochre color, these cements were massively used, notably to produce cast stone, to simulate natural freestone. A preliminary survey revealed an overall good state of preservation of the buildings of this period. Two kinds of decays mechanisms were however identified : erosion affecting the surface of the majority of the buildings, inducing a gradual disappearance of the initial "fake-stone aspect", and a spalling phenomenon often combined with salts crystallization, observed only on a few buildings. Today, due to a lack of appropriate repair materials, the rehabilitation of these buildings mainly consists in the use of gray Portland-cement-based-mortars combined with a painting finishing, which is not satisfactory considering the conservation deontology, as the original appearance is lost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and to test compatible repair materials to restore the culture heritage of this region. Based on the preliminary characterization of a set of representative ancient buildings, combined to a literature review, specifications concerning the composition and the main properties of repair materials, which could assure a compatibility with the ancient concrete of the region were established. Then, three Prompt-cement and one Portland-cement based mortars were selected, two of them being specifically formulated. Firstly, the appearance, the workability and the mechanical and physical properties of those mortars were characterized. Secondly, to evaluate the compatibility of the selected mortars with ancient concrete, Prompt-cement-based slabs were cast using a 19th century concrete formula, and were artificially eroded. After applying the 4 mortars on the slabs, visual observations and pull-out tests will be carried out before and after artificial aging. Finally, the repair mortar presenting the best performances will be tested on site in a monument of Grenoble.

Keywords

Cast stone
Compatibility
Erosion
Natural cement
Repair mortar

Language

English

DOI

10.14568/cp8_8

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Citation

Conservar Património | APA | Chicago | NP405 | ABNT

Conservar Património:
Bouichou, M.; Cailleux, E.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Sommain, D., 'Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region', Conservar Património 8 (2008) 59-66, https://doi.org/10.14568/cp8_8.

APA:
Bouichou, M., Cailleux, E., Marie-Victoire, E., & Sommain, D. (2008). Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region. Conservar Património, 8 59-66. DOI:10.14568/cp8_8.

Chicago:
Bouichou, Myriam, Emmanuel Cailleux, Elisabeth Marie-Victoire, and Denis Sommain. 2008. "Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region." Conservar Património 8:59-66. doi:10.14568/cp8_8.

NP405:
BOUICHOU, Myriam [et al.] – Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region. Conservar Património. [Em linha]. 8 (2008) 59-66 [Consult. ]. Disponível em WWW: <URL:https://doi.org/10.14568/cp8_8>. ISSN 21829942.

ABNT:
BOUICHOU, Myriam et al. Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region. Conservar Património, Lisboa, v. 8, p. 59-66, 2008. Disponível em: <https://doi.org/10.14568/cp8_8>. Acesso em: .

History

Online: 2017-10-3
Publication: 2009-8-10

References

1 Cailleux, E.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Sommain, D., 'Microstructural and weathering mechanisms of natural cements used in the 19th century in the French Rhône-Alpes region', in International workshop on repair mortars for historic masonry, Delft (2005).

2 Cailleux, E.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Sommain, D., 'Study of natural cements from the French Rhône-Alpes region', in International conference on: Heritage, Weathering and Conservation, vol. I, Madrid (2006) 77-84.

3 Thomasson, F., Les enduits monocouches à base de liants hydrauliques, Unitecta France, Paris (1982).

4 Enduits Monocouches d'imperméabilisation. Certifications et classements des produits du bâtiment, CSTB, Paris (1993).

5 Emmons, P. H.; Vaysburd, A. M., 'Factors affecting the durability of concrete repair: the contractor's viewpoint', Construction and buil ding materials 8 (1994) 5-16.

6 Daubresse, A., 'Caractérisation des mortiers pour le bâti ancien', in Exposé de la journée enduits, bétons et patrimoine (1998).

7 Vaysburd, A. M.; Mcdonald, J. E.; Emmons, P. H.; Poston, R. W., 'Performance criteria for selection of repair materials', in Fifth international conference CANMET/ACI, ed. V. M. Malhotra, vol 2, Barcelona (2000) 931-947.

8 Société anonyme, Travaux Ciments, Note sur la fabrication et la composition des pierres de taille artificielles moulurées, Grenoble (1900) 2.

9 La Société de Ciments de la Porte de France, Les Ciments de la Porte de France, Agenda 1958 (1958) 9.

Stable url: https://doi.org/10.14568/cp8_8


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