Versão em português
N.º 29
2018
pp. 11-24

 

< Previous Next >

Article
Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt

Nour Mohamed Badr1,, Mona Fouad Ali2, Nesrin M. N. El Hadidi2, Gamal Abdel Naeem3

1 Conservation Centre, Grand Egyptian Museum, Ministry of Antiquities, El Mathf Elmasry ElKebir (Grand Egyptian Museum) St., El-Remaya Sq., 12572 Giza, Egypt

2 Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt

3 Department Advanced Technologies – Scientific Research, 21934 Burj Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

* dr_noor_90000@yahoo.com

Abstract

A wooden coffin lid, of unknown provenance, with ground and colored layers and an ancient textile, was found at the Egyptian Museum basement in Cairo (JE 36806). The information obtained leads to the conclusion that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt (332-30 BC), whereas the textile does not belong to the coffin lid. Portable x-ray radiography, photography, optical microscopy, reflected light USB microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the deterioration and the structure of the coffin lid and to understand how it was made in the necropolis workshop.

Keywords

Wooden coffin
Abusir El-Meleq
Ptolemaic period
Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Pigments
Binding media

Language

English

DOI

10.14568/cp2017029

Download

PDF

Download citation

RIS | Endnote

Citation

Conservar Património | APA | Chicago | NP405 | ABNT

Conservar Património:
Badr, N. M.; Ali, M. F.; Hadidi, N. M. N. E.; Naeem, G. A., 'Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt', Conservar Património 29 (2018) 11-24, https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2017029.

APA:
Badr, N. M., Ali, M. F., Hadidi, N. M. N. E., & Naeem, G. A. (2018). Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt. Conservar Património, 29 11-24. DOI:10.14568/cp2017029.

Chicago:
Badr, Nour Mohamed, Mona Fouad Ali, Nesrin M. N. El Hadidi, and Gamal Abdel Naeem. 2018. "Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt." Conservar Património 29:11-24. doi:10.14568/cp2017029.

NP405:
BADR, Nour Mohamed [et al.] – Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt. Conservar Património. [Em linha]. 29 (2018) 11-24 [Consult. ]. Disponível em WWW: <URL:https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2017029>. ISSN 21829942.

ABNT:
BADR, Nour Mohamed et al. Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt. Conservar Património, Lisboa, v. 29, p. 11-24, 2018. Disponível em: <https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2017029>. Acesso em: .

History

Received: 2017-6-2
Revised: 2017-10-29
Accepted: 2017-11-30
Online: 2018-2-1
Publication: 2018-9-29

References

1 Rubensohn, O., ‘Bericht über die Ausgrabungen bei Abusir el Mäläq im Jahre 1903’, Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 41-42 (1904) 1-21.

2 Bard, K (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge, London – New York (1999).

3 Germer, R.; Kischkewitz, H.; Lüning, M., Berliner Mumiengeschichten: Ergebnisse Eines Multidisziplinaren Forschungsprojektes, Schnell und Steiner, Regensburg (2009).

4 Bruyère, B., Rapport sur les Fouilles de Deir el Médineh (1928), Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Le Caire (1929) 42-43.

5 El-Enany, K., ‘Un carré de lin peint au musée de l’Agriculture du Caire (inv. 893)’, Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 110 (2010) 35-45.

6 Valdemar, S., Sarkofager, Mumiekister og Mumiehylstre i det Gamle Aegypten, J. Frimodt, København (1919).

7 Dawson, J.; Marchant, J.; Von Aderkas, E.; Cartwright, C.; Stacey, R., ‘Egyptian coffins: materials, construction and decoration’, in Death on the Nile Uncovering the Afterlife of Ancient Egypt, ed. H. Strudwick & J. Dawson, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (2016) 75-111.

8 Wheeler, E. A.; Baas, P.; Gasson, P. E. (ed.), ‘‘IAWA List of microscopic features for hardwood identification: with an appendix on non-anatomical information’, IAWA Bulletin 10(3) (1989) 219-332, https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000496.

9 Anelkovic, B.; Victoria, M.; Amoros, A., ‘The coffin of Nesmin: construction and wood identification’, Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society 21 (2005) 349-364.

10 Schweingruber, F.H.; Börner, A.; Schulze, E., Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees, Springer, Berlin – Heidelberg (2011).

11 Crivellaro, A. ; Schweingruber, F. H., Atlas of Wood, Bark and Pith Anatomy of Eastern Mediterranean Trees and Shrubs with a Special Focus on Cyprus, Springer, Berlin –Heidelberg (2013).

12 Gale, R.; Gasson, P.; Hepper, N.; Killen, G., ‘Wood’, in Ancient Egyptian materials and technology , ed. P. Nicholson & I. Show, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000) 334-370.

13 Gansicke, S., ‘The conservation of decorated organic Egyptian surfaces: a literature review’, in Decorated Surfaces on Ancient Egyptian Objects: Technology, Deterioration and Conservation, ed. J. Dawson, C. Rozeik & M. Wright, Archetype Publications, Cambridge (2010) 67-77.

14 Stein, A.; Lacovara, P., ‘Observations on the preparation layers found on ancient Egyptian decorated coffins’, in Decorated Surfaces on Ancient Egyptian Objects: Technology, Deterioration and Conservation, ed. J. Dawson, C. Rozeik & M. Wright, Archetype Publications, Cambridge (2010) 3-8.

15 Sadegh, A.; Kiaei, M.; Samariha, A., ‘Experimental Characterization of Shrinkage And Density of Tamarix Aphylla Wood’, Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 46 (2012) 369-373.

16 Mecklenburg, M. F.; Tumosa, C. S.; Erhardt, D., ‘Structural response of painted wood surfaces to changes in ambient relative humidity’, in Painted Wood: History and Conservation, ed. V. Dorge & C. Howlett, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles (1998) 464.

17 Killen, G., Ancient Egyptian Furniture, vol.1, Oxbow Books, Oxford (2017) 7.

18 Derrick , M.; Stulik, C. Landry, J., Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science, Getty Publications, Los Angeles (1999) 179-183.

19 Lucas, A.; Harris, J.R., Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th ed., Edward Arnold, London (1962).

20 Scott, D. A.; Warmlander, S.; Mazurek, J.; Quirke, S., ‘Examination of some pigments, grounds and media from Egyptian cartonnage fragments in the Petrie Museum- University College London’, Journal of Archaeological Science, 36 (3) (2009) 923-932, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2008.12.011.

21 Mahmoud, H., ‘A multi-analytical approach for characterizing pigments from the tomb of Djehutyemhab (Tt194), Elqurna necropolis, Upper Egypt’, Archeometriai Mhely 3 (2012) 205-214.

22 Mahmoud, H. H. M., ‘Investigations by Raman microscopy, SEM and FTIR-ATR of wall paintings from Qasr el-Ghuieta temple, Kharga Oasis, Egypt’, Heritage Science 2 (2014) 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-014-0018-x.

23 Westlake, P.; Siozos, P.; Philippidis, A.; Apostolaki, C.; Derham, B.; Terlixi, A.; Perdikatsis, V.; Jones, R. ; Anglos, D. , ‘Studying pigments on painted plaster in Minoan, Roman and early Byzantine Crete. A multi-analytical technique approach’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 402(4) (2012) 1413-1432, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5281-z.

24 Lee, L.; Quirke, S., ‘Painting materials’, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, ed. P. Nicholson & I. Show, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000) 104-119.

25 Scott, D. ‘A review of ancient Egyptian pigments and cosmetics’, Studies in Conservation 61(4) (2016) 185-202, http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2047058414Y.0000000162.

26 Jaksch, H.; Seipel, W.; Weiner, K.; E1 Goresy, A., ‘Egyptian blue – Cuprorivaite a window to ancient Egyptian technology’, Naturwissenschaften 70(11) (1983) 525-535, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00376668.

27 Bianchetti, P.; Talarico, F.; Vigliano, M. G.; Ali, M. F., ‘Production and characterization of Egyptian blue and Egyptian green frit’, Journal of Cultural Heritage 1(2) (2000) 179-188, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1296-2074(00)00165-5.

28 Hatton, G. D.; Shortland, A. J.; Tite, M. S., ‘The production technology of Egyptian blue and green frits from second millennium BC Egypt and Mesopotamia’, Journal of Archaeological Science 35(6) (2008) 1591-1604, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.008.

29 Di Stefano, L.M.; Fuchs, R., ‘Characterization of the pigments in a Ptolemaic Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus’, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 3 (2011) 229-244, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-011-0054-3.

30 Ambers, J., ‘Raman analysis of pigments from the Egyptian Old Kingdom’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 35 (8-9) (2004) 768-773, https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1187.

31 Bersani, D.; Lottici, P. P., ‘Raman spectroscopy of minerals and mineral pigments in archaeometry’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 47(5) (2016) 499-530, https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.4914.

32 Burgio, L.; Clark , R., ‘Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation’, Spectrochimica Acta Part A 57(7) (2001) 1491–1521, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1386-1425(00)00495-9.

33 David, A.; Edwards, H.; Farwell, W.; De Faria, D., ‘Raman spectroscopic analysis of ancient Egyptian pigments’, Archaeometry 43(4) (2001) 461-473, https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.00029.

34 Hanesch, M., ‘Raman spectroscopy of iron oxides and (oxy) hydroxides at low laser power and possible applications in environmental magnetic studies’, Geophysical Journal International 177(3) (2009) 941-948, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04122.x.

35 Abdrabou, A.; Abdallah, M.; Kamal, H., ‘Scientific investigation by technical photography, OM, ESEM, XRF, XRD and FTIR of an ancient Egyptian polychrome wooden coffin’, Conservar Património 26 (2017) 51-63, https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2017008.

36 Ragai, J., ‘Colour: its significance and production in Ancient Egypt’, Endeavour 10 (2) (1986) 74-79, https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-9327(86)90134-1.

37 Vahur, S.; Teearu, A.; Peets, P.; Joosu, L.; Leito, I., ‘ATR-FT-IR spectral collection of conservation materials in the extended region of 4000-80 cm-1’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 408 (13) (2016) 3373-3379, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9411-5.

38 ‘ATR-FT-IR spectra of egg yolk (4000-225 cm–1)’, in Database of ATR-FT-IR Spectra of Various Materials, http://lisa.chem.ut.ee/IR_spectra/paint/binders/egg-yolk/ (accessed 2017-1-31).

39 Vandenabeele, P. ; Wehling, B.; Moens, L.; Edwards, H.; De Reu, M.; Van Hooydonk, G., ‘Analysis with micro-Raman spectroscopy of natural organic binding media and varnishes used in art’, Analy ica Chimica Acta 407(1-2) (2000) 261–274, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00827-2.

40 Nevin, A.; Osticioli, I. ; Anglos, D.; Burnstock, A.; Cather, S.; Castellucci, E., ‘The analysis of naturally and artificially aged protein-based paint media using Raman spectroscopy combined with Principal Component Analysis’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39(8) (2008) 993-1000, https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1951.

41 Osticioli, I.; Nevin, A.; Anglos, D.; Burnstock, A.; Cather, S.; Becucci, M.; Fotakis, C.; Castellucci, E., ‘Micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for the assessment of the effects of the exposure to light on films of egg white and egg yolk’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39(2) (2008) 307-313, https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1915.

42 Newman, R. ; Serpico, M., ‘Adhesives and binders’, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, ed. P. Nicholson & I. Show, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000) 475-490.

43 Vogelsang-Eastwood, G., ‘Textiles’, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, ed. P. Nicholson & I. Show, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000) 268-297.

44 Borojevic, K.; Mountain, R., ‘Microscopic identification and sourcing of ancient Egyptian plant fibres using longitudinal thin sectioning’, Archaeometry, 55(1) (2013) 81-112, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2012.00673.x.

Stable url: https://doi.org/10.14568/cp2017029


< Previous Next >
ARP | Associação Profissional de Conservadores-Restauradores de Portugal