Versão em português
N.º 10
2009
pp. 41-53

 

< Previous Next >

Article
Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field

Georgia Zacharopoulou

Ephorate of Modern Monuments of Central Macedonia, Greek Ministry of Culture Mouson 89, 54634 Thessaloniki, Greece

gzachar.heritage@gmail.com

Abstract

The objective of the paper is the compilation, review and dissemination of updated scientific knowledge on lime theory and technology in the field of heritage conservation. The strong evidence of the last decade's research on the positive effect of the - not demonstrable by a chemical equation – 'key' missing link of the maturation process is highlighted. It is demonstrated that the exceptional perfor -mance characteristics of durable lime based mortars predominately rely on the capacity for rapid, efficient and extensive carbonation of the air-hardening phase of limes, in particular when matured (nanoparticle wet slaked) lime putties are used; and on the chemical and mechanical stability of the strength components (principally CSHs) of the hydraulic phase of limes, which is higher in their more crystalline forms of historical lime-pozzolan mixtures than in their amorphous forms of modern cements. Hence, physicochemical adhesion and cohesion bonds both at the lime matrix and at the binder/aggregate interfaces are ensured imparting minimization of cracks and durability to lime based mortars and historic masonries. The comprehensive documentation of the former leads to optimal materials and procedures to preserve our cultural heritage.

Keywords

Maturation
Lime putty
Lime mortar
Strength components
Structural stability

Language

English

DOI

10.14568/cp10-4

Download

PDF

Download citation

RIS | Endnote

Citation

Conservar Património | APA | Chicago | NP405 | ABNT

Conservar Património:
Zacharopoulou, G., 'Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field', Conservar Património 10 (2009) 41-53, https://doi.org/10.14568/cp10-4.

APA:
Zacharopoulou, G. (2009). Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field. Conservar Património, 10 41-53. DOI:10.14568/cp10-4.

Chicago:
Zacharopoulou, Georgia. 2009. "Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field." Conservar Património 10:41-53. doi:10.14568/cp10-4.

NP405:
ZACHAROPOULOU, Georgia – Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field. Conservar Património. ISSN 1646043X. 10 (2009) 41-53.

ABNT:
ZACHAROPOULOU, Georgia. Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field. Conservar Património, Lisboa, v. 10, p. 41-53, 2009. Disponível em: <https://doi.org/10.14568/cp10-4>. Acesso em: .

History

Received: 2010-02-04
Revised: 2010-01-29
Accepted: 2009-10-30Online: 2017-10-3
Publication: 2010-7-5

References

1 Von Landsberg, D., 'The history of lime production and use from early times to the industrial revolution', Zement-Kalk-Gips 6 (1992) 269-273 [in German], 8 199-203 [in English].

2 Malinowski, R.; Garfinkel, Y.; 'Prehistory of concrete', Concrete International (1991) 13(3) 62-68.

3 Stanley, C. C., Highlights in the History of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Association (1979) 43.

4 Davey, N., A History of Building Materials, Phoenix House, London (1961) 121-127.

5 Malinowski, R., 'Ancient mortars and concretes; durability aspects', in Mortars, Cements and Grouts used in the Conservation of Historic Buildings, Proceedings of the ICCROM Symposium, Rome, 3-6.11.1981, ICCROM, Rome (1982) 341-350.

6 Goria, C., 'Evoluzione storica dei leganti e dei conglomerati: dall' empirismo alla loro conoscenza razionale', in Cemento: Storia, Tecnologia, Applicazioni, Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milan (1976) 45-80.

7 Malinowski, R., 'Concretes and mortars in ancient aqueducts', Concrete International 1 (1979) 66-76.

8 Efstathiadis, E., 'Greek concrete of three millenniums', Journal of Research Centre 17(1) (1978) [in Greek].

9 Papayianni, I., 'The longevity of old mortars', Applied Physics A: Material Science and Processing 83(4) (2006) 685-688.

10 Van Balen, K., 'Understanding the lime cycle and its influence on historical construction practice', in First International Congress on Construction History, Proceedings III, Madrid, 20th-24th January 2003 (2003) 2035-2039.

11 Tourptsoglou-Stefanidou, B., Byzantine Building Restrictions, Society of Macedonian Studies, Scientific Treatises, Law and Economic Series 6, Thessaloniki (1998) [in Greek].

12 Moropoulou, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Biscontin, G.; Bakolas, A.; Zendri, E., 'Advanced Byzantine cement based composites resisting earthquake stresses: the crushed brick/lime mortars of Justinian's Hagia Sophia', Construction and Building Materials 16(8) (2002) 543-552.

13 Karaveziroglou, M.; Papayianni, J.; Penelis G., 'Mortars and grouts in restoration of Roman and Byzantine monuments', Compatible Materials for the Protection of European Cultural Heritage, the PACT Journal of the European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Mathematical and Biological Techniques Applied to Archaeology, PACT 55, ed. G. Biscontin, A. Moropoulou, M. Erdik and J. Delgado Rodrigues, Technical Chamber of Greece, Athens (1998) 219-245.

14 Speweik, J. P., 'The history of masonry mortar in America 1720-1995', Lime News (Journal of the Building Limes Forum) 4(2) (1996) 5-19.

15 Vitruvius,M., The Ten Books on Architecture, translated by M. H. Morgan, Dover Publications, New York (1960), Book II, 35-64, Book VII, 195-220.

16 Gaio Plinio Secondo, Naturalis Historia, G. Einaudi, Torino (1988), libro quinto, 709-711.

17 Palladio,A., The Four Books on Architecture, translated by R. Tavernor and R. Schofield, MIT Press, Cambridge (1997), Libri 4.

18 Alberti, L. B., Ten Books on Architecture, translated by J. Rykert, A. Tiranti, London (1955).

19 Higgins, B., Experiments and Observations, T. Cadell, London (1780) 35-38.

20 Smeaton, J., A Narrative of Building and a Description of the Construction of the Edystone Lighthouse with Stone, 2nd ed., G. Nicol, London (1793).

21 Vicat, L. J., A Practical and Scientific Treatise on Calcareous Mortars and Cements; Artificial and Natural, translated by Captain J. T. Smith, J. Weale, London (1837).

22 Burnell,G., Rudimentary Treatise on Limes, Cements, Mortars: Concretes, Mastics, Plastering etc., 14th ed., Crosby Lockwood and Son, London (1892).

23 Dibdin, W. J., Tests of Limes and Sands. Report to the Royal Institute of British Architects (1911).

24 Leduc, E. ; Chenu, G., Chaux, Ciments et Plâtres, Paris (1912).

25 Eckels, E.C., Cements, Lime and Plasters, John Wiley, New York (1922).

26 Knibbs, N.V. S., Lime and Magnesia, Ernest Benn, London (1924).

27 Hasak, M.; 'Mörteltechnik-Einiges über den Loriotschen Mörtel und über den mittelalterlichen Mörtel', Tonindustrie-Zeitung 49(77) (1925) 1080-1081.

28 Anstett, F., Essai et Analyse des Matériaux de Construction et de Travaux Publics, Paris (1927).

29 Cower, A. D., 'Lime and lime mortars', in Building Research Special Report 9, HMSO (1927) 74-76.

30 Kuhl, H., Zement 18, 833 (1929).

31 Grun, R., 'Zusammensetzung und Beständigkeit von 1850 Jahre altem Beton', Angewandte Chemie 7 (1935) 124-127.

32 Knight, B., Builders' Materials, Edward Arnold & Co., London (1939).

33 Mitchell, G., Mitchell's Building Construction - Elementary Course, B.T. Batsford Ltd, London (1943), reprinted in Lime News (Journal of the Building Limes Forum) 3(1) (1994) 63.

34 Boynton, R. S., The Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone, 2nd ed., J. Wiley & Sons, New York (1980).

35 Phillips, M. W., 'Conference Summary', APT Bulletin 6(1) (1974) 9-39.

36 Alessandrini,G.,'L' Intonaco: Storia, Cultura e Technologia', in Atti del convegno di Studi, Bressanone 24-27 Giugno 1985, Libreria Progetto Editore, Padova (1985) 9-39.

37 Torraca, G., 'Lime technology in architectural conservation', Lime News (Journal of the Building Limes Forum) 4(1) (1995) 34-41.

38 Mortars, Cements and Grouts used in the Conservation of Historic Buildings. Symposium, Rome, 3-6 November 1981, ICCROM, Rome (1982).

39 Elsen, J., 'Microscopy of historic mortars - a review', Cement and Concrete Research 36 (2006) 1416-1424.

40 Stewart, J.;Moore, J., 'Chemical techniques of historic mortar analysis', APT Bulletin 14(1) (1982) 11-16.

41 Charola,A. E.; Henriques, F., 'Hydraulicity in lime mortars revisited', RILEM TC-167COM International Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests, University of Paisley, Scotland (1999).

42 Lindqvist, J. E.;Nijland,T.;Von Konow,T.;Wester, Plesser T.;Nyman, P.; Larbi, J.; Van Hees, R., 'Analysis of mortars with additives', http://www.nordicinnovation.net/nordtestfiler/rep594.pdf (accessed 2 February 2010).

43 Leslie, A. B.; Hughes, J. J., 'Binder microstructure in lime mortars: implications for the interpretation of analysis results', Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology 35(3) (2002) 257-263.

44 Callebaut, K.,'State of the art of research/diagnostics of historical building materials in Belgium', http://www.arcchip.cz/w09/w09_callebaut.pdf (accessed 2 November 2005).

45 RILEM TC 167-COM, 'Characterisation of Old Mortars with Respect to their Repair', Final Report rep028, ed. C. Groot, G. Ashall and J. Hughes (2004).

46 Zacharopoulou G., 'The Renascence of Lime Based Mortar Technology. An appraisal of a bibliographic study', Compatible Materials for the Protection of European Cultural Heritage, the PACT Journal of the European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Mathematical and Biological Techniques Applied to Archaeology, PACT 55, ed. G. Biscontin, A. Moropoulou, M. Erdik and J. Delgado Rodrigues, Technical Chamber of Greece, Athens (1998) 89-114.

47 EN 459, Building Lime-Part 1: Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria 459.02: Building Lime-Part 2: Test Methods, 459.03: Building Lime-Part 3: Conformity Evaluation, CEN (2000) (revision towards approval by CEN in 2010).

48 ÅÍ 998, Specification for Mortar for Masonry-Part 1: Rendering/Plastering, Specification for Mortar for Masonry-Part 2: Masonry Mortar, CEN (2000).

49 Wingate, M., Small-Scale Lime-Burning. A Practical Introduction, Intermediate Technology Publications, London (1985).

50 Holmes, S.; Wingate, M., Building with Lime. A Practical Introduction, Intermediate Technology Publications, London (1997).

51 Moropoulou,A.; Bakolas,A.; Aggelakopoulou, E., 'The effects of limestone characteristics and calcination temperature to the reactivity of the quicklime', Cement and Concrete Research 31 (2001) 633-639.

52 Zacharopoulou,G., 'Building Lime of High Reactivity Suitable for the Conservation of Monuments and Historical Buildings', PhD thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (2004), 408 pp. [in Greek], available online by the National Documentation Centre (NDC) - Hellenic PhD Dissertations Thesis, http://thesis.ekt.gr/14566.

53 Brown, P. W.; Clifton, J. R., 'Mechanisms of deterioration in cementbased materials and lime mortar', Durability of Building Materials 15(5) (1988) 409-420.

54 Czernin, W., Cement Chemistry and Physics for Civil Engineers, 2nd ed., Georg Godwin, London (1980).

55 Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, 3rd ed., Arnold Ltd, London (1988) 415-453.

56 Torraca, G., Porous Building Materials . Materials Science for Architectural Conservation, 3rd ed., ICCROM, Rome (1988).

57 Elert, K.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.; Pardo, E.S.; Hansen, E.; Cazalla, O., eLime mortars for the conservation of historic buildingsf, Studies in Conservation 47 (2002) 62-75.

58 Wisser, S.; Kraus, K.; Knofel,D., eComposition and properties of historical lime mortarsf, in VIth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun., 12-14 September 1988, ed. by J.Ciabach, Nicolas Copernicus University Press Dept., Torun (1988) 484-491.

59 Knofel,D., eOld and new mortars. Material analyses and recommendations concerning historical masonryf, in Conservation of Historic Brick Structures, Proceedings of the 3rd Expert Meeting, NATO-CCMS Pilot Study Hamburg, 2-4 November 1989, Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (1990) 64-86.

60 Callebaut,K.; Van Balen,K.,eDry-slaked lime: an alternative binder for restoration mortarsf, in 1st International Workshop on Urban Heritage and Building Maintenance VII eMaintenance and strengthening of materials and structures: Plasterf, Zurich (2000) 65-72.

61 Zacharopoulou, G., eLime outdoors, lime indoors: the virtue of water retentivenessf, EUROCARE Newsletter 4 (2005) 8.

62 Faria, P.; Henriques, F.; Rato,V., eComparative evaluation of lime mortars for architectural conservationf, Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) 338-346.

63 Atzeni, C.; Farci, A.; Floris, D.; Meloni, P., eEffect of aging on rheological properties of lime puttyf, Journal of American Ceramic Society 87(9) (2004) 1764-1766.

64 Rodriguez-Navarro,C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; Hansen, E., eNanostructure and irreversible colloidal behaviour of Ca(OH)2: Implications in cultural heritage conservation,f Langmuir 21 (2005) 10948-10957.

65 Zacharopoulou, G., eGreek air-hardening building lime puttiesf, Lime News (Journal of the Building Limes Forum) 13 (2006) 88-93.

66 Van Balen,K., eThe Influence of Carbonation of Lime Mortars on the Properties of Historic Masonry Structuresf, PhD thesis, University of Louvain, Belgium (1991) [in Dutch].

67 Cazalla, O.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.; Sebastian, E.; Cultrone, G.,eAging of lime putty: Effects on traditional lime mortar carbonationf, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 83(5) (2000) 1070-1076.

68 Radonjic, M.; Hallam, K. R.; Allen, G. C.; Hayward, R. J., eThe mechanism of carbonation in lime-based materialsf, Lime News (Journal of the Building Limes Forum) 8 (2001) 50-64.

69 Hansen, E.; Van Balen, K.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C., eVariations in lime mortar properties resulting from the use of freshly slaked quicklime, aged slaked lime, and commercial dry hydrated limef, http://www.lime.org/BLG (accessed 2 March 2005).

70 Beruto, D. T.; Barberis, F.; Botter, R., eCalcium carbonate binding mechanisms in the setting of calcium and calcium-magnesium puttylimesf, Journal of Cultural Heritage 6 (2005) 253-260.

71 Adriano, P.; Silva, A. S.; Veiga, R.; Mirao, J.; Candeias,A. E., eMicroscopic characterisation of old mortars from the Santa Maria church in Évora', in 11th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials, 5-9 June 2007, Porto, Portugal, http://cathedral.lnec.pt/publicacoes/c9.pdf (accessed 23 January 2010).

72 Lawrence, R. M. H., 'A critical review of techniques used to assessment of carbonation in lime mortars', in International Building Lime Symposium 2005, Orlando, Florida, March 9 -11, 2005, http://www.nationallime.org/IBLS05Papers/Lawrence.pdf (accessed 2 February 2010).

73 Rodriguez-Navarro, C.; Cazalla, O.; Elert, K., Sebastian, E., 'Liesegang pattern development in carbonating traditional lime mortars', The Royal Society Proceedings Series A 458(2025) (2002) 2261-2273.

74 Pettifer, K., 'A Petrographic Investigation of Ancient Mortars', personal discussion at BRE on March 1993 on his Special Report 44/86, ed. BRE, Garston, Watford (1986).

75 Rayment, D. L.; Pettifer, K., 'Examination of durable mortar from Hadrian's Wall', Materials Science and Technology 3 (1987) 997-1004.

76 Jordan, J.W.; Brookes, C. L., 'The Conservation and Strengthening of Masonry Structures', http://www.gifford.uk.com/publications/7AMC-Newcastle-2004.pdf (accessed 2 March 2005).

77 Moropoulou, A.; Bakolas, A.; Bisbikou, K., 'Physico-chemical adhesion and adhesion bonds in joint mortars imparting durability to the historic structures', Construction and Building Materials 14(1) (2000) 35-46.

78 Collepardi,M., 'Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historical buildings', Materials and Structures 23 (1990), 81-102.

79 Bartos, P.; Groot, C.; Hughes, J. (ed.), Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests, University of Paisley, Scotland (2000).

80 Charola,A. E.; Henriques, F., 'Lime mortars: some consideration on testing standardization', in Use of and need for preservation standards in architectural conservation, ASTM STP 1355, R.C. McClug, American Society of Testing Materials, http://www.dec.fct.unl.pt/seccoes/smtc/pub16.pdf (accessed 31 January 2007).

81 RILEM TC 203-RHM,Repair mortars for historic masonry. Testing of hardened mortars, a process of questioning and interpreting', Materials and Structures, 42(7) (2009) 853-865.

82 Teutonico, J. M.; Fiddler, J., 'Time for change: An overview of building-materials research for conservation of historic structures', APT Bulletin, 29(3-4) (1998) 45-49.

83 Lawrence, R.M.H.;Walker, P., 'The impact of the water/lime ratio on the structural characteristics of air lime mortars', in Structural Analysis of Historic Construction:Preserving Safety and Significance. Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historic Construction, SAHC08, 2-4 July 2008, Bath, ed. D. F. D' Ayala and E. Fodde, Taylor & Francis Group, London (2008) 885-889.

84 Lanas, J.;Alvarez-Galindo, J., 'Masonry repair lime-based mortars: factors affecting the mechanical behaviour', Cement and Concrete Research 33(11) (2003) 1867-1876.

85 Arandigoyen, M.; Bernal, J. L. Pérez; López, M. A. Bello; Alvarez, J. I., 'Lime-pastes with different kneading water: Pore structure and capillary porosity', Applied Surface Science 252(5) (2005) 1449-1459.

86 Silva, P.; Bucea, L.; Moorehead, D. R.; Sirivivatnanon, V., 'Carbonate binders: Reaction kinetics, strength and microstructure', Cement & Concrete Composites 28 (2006) 613-620.

87 Karaveziroglou, M.; Papayianni, J., 'Compressive Strength of Masonry with Thick Mortar Joints', in RILEM Congress on the Conservation of Stone and other Materials, 29th of June 1993, Paris (1993) 1-8.

88 Tomazeviè, M., 'Shear resistance of masonry walls and Eurocode 6: shear versus tensile strength of masonry', Materials and Structures 42 (7) (2009) 889-907.

89 Vintzileou, E.; Miltiadou-Fezans,A., 'Mechanical properties of three-leaf stone masonry grouted with ternary or hydraulic lime-based grouts', Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 2265-2276.

90 Pavía, S., 'A petrographic study of mortar hydraulicity', in HMC08, Historical Mortars Conference: Characterization, Diagnosis, Conservation, Repair and Compatibility, Lisbon, 24-26 September 2008, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (2008).

Stable url: https://doi.org/10.14568/cp10-4


< Previous Next >
ARP | Associação Profissional de Conservadores-Restauradores de Portugal